3.6 Supply source considerations
Distribution planning and logistics planning are critically linked. A logistics analysis must be conducted at the beginning of a response to evaluate the conditions of physical access to the beneficiaries, including the feasibility of distributions (see Chapter 15 Logistics). This should consider sourcing, purchasing, warehousing and transport options and requirements.
The logistics systems and supply source for items to be distributed must be taken into consideration in distribution planning. They will influence what can be distributed, when and where distribution can take place.
There are usually three main types of supply sources (a programme may involve all three):
- purchases locally, within the region or from the head office
- donations received and sent to where the intervention takes place
- supplies provided by the World Food Programme (WFP) or another specialised partner who supplies with the items to be distributed.
Note that when working with WFP, they often play a key role in both in terms of food aid mobilisation and basic logistics. In some cases they will be responsible for the entire logistical operation up to the extended delivery point (EDP) and/or final delivery point (FDP)-that is, the point on the ground nearest to the area of intervention. CARE will usually be responsible for transporting the food from the EDP/FDP to the distribution site, and for distributing the food to the beneficiaries. The EDP/FDP is either a secondary warehouse or a distribution point where the food is delivered, stored and distributed.
For more information on supply sources, please see Chapter 16 Procurement.