5.2 Target Beneficiaries

Targeting is a major step of every emergency response – who are targeted depends on the program objective, not whether CVA is used. Targeting methods and protocols are also independent of the delivery modality.

CARE often relies on community-based targeting, using local criteria and village committees to select the most vulnerable households within a community. The main benefits of these methodologies are buy-in and outcome acceptance from beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries.

No targeting method is perfect, and none will result in targeting without errors. To mitigate inclusion and exclusion errors, setting up the accessible and reliable complaint and feedback mechanism is key and allows beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries to report problematic exclusion and inclusion.

Cash for Work targeting:

When CfW is used, in addition to beneficiary selection, the work to be undertaken must be identified and should aim to improve community resources and infrastructures. Work selection should involve the community, with an equal number of female and male representatives. The following criteria can guide the selection:

  • Relevance to addressing community needs;
  • The long-term benefit for the community;
  • Non-duplication with other initiatives;
  • Labor intensiveness and number of participants that can be enrolled;
  • Technical viability and capacity of the community and executing agency;
  • Safety and security;
  • Landownership and permit considerations;
  • Do-no-harm considerations, especially in relation to social cohesion/tension, gender, and child labor.

Inclusive targeting:

When identifying target beneficiaries, steps should be taken to ensure that assistance benefits both men and women affected by the emergency equally. The risks of doing harm should be assessed to prevent or find mitigating measures for those risks. This includes:

  • Ensure CfW is inclusive: When CfW is selected, the type of work offered to beneficiaries should allow all groups to partake in the scheme (including elderly or those living with disability), or provisions should be made for a percentage of unconditional grants for households unable to work.
  • Minimum/Maximum age limits for CfW: The minimum age requirement for partaking in CfW schemes is 18 years old, as otherwise, we are supporting child labor. If upper age limits are set, they should be agreed upon by the community, otherwise, participation in work should be skills/vulnerability/capacity-based.
  • Ensure child-headed households have access to the scheme: Especially important when considering the use of banking instruments, as ATM cards or bank accounts are often only accessible persons over 18 years of age. Alternatives should be included to allow assistance to child-headed households.
  • Risk and opportunities of technology and e-transfer: Considering mobile transfers can lead to increased beneficiary accountability, due to increased access to CARE team members. However, access to technology can also represent a barrier for beneficiaries with low technical literacy. When technology is being considered for payment delivery, ensure that beneficiaries can access the transfer or get support to do so.
  • Engage both men and women in CVA and use your gender analysis to identify primary household recipients to target: This can be done through information campaigns, raising awareness, and encouraging women’s and men’s participation in design and implementation. CVA could increase intra-household violence and add an additional burden on women in terms of workload and/or social pressure, but it can also provide an opportunity to support women’s economic empowerment and financial inclusion.
  •  Communicate clearly with communities: Be sure to outline targeting criteria, and set the expectations associated with this targeting. CVA is unlikely to be successful when the community does not agree with criteria or processes for beneficiary selection.
  • Monitor the wellbeing of women, children, elderly, and people living with disabilities: Ensure the CVA does no harm to any beneficiaries, particularly those from vulnerable groups.

Considerations for gender equity in the use of cash for work for Shelter outcomes