3.1 The assessment process and tools for WASH
A number of different assessment tools exist to help data collection, including an Initial Rapid Assessment (IRA) tool developed by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) through global Health, Nutrition and WASH Clusters. See the “Assessments” section for this tool and more information on assessments.
After an initial multi-sector rapid assessment, a more detailed WASH assessment is the next best step to develop specific WASH programme plans. The WASH cluster may decide on an assessment format for all agencies to use (if the WASH cluster has been active in-country before, an agreed assessment format should be in place before the emergency). The Sphere Minimum Standards provide a basis for needs assessment and analysis in each sector, with assessment checklists available for WASH (see Sphere Handbook 2018: Appendix 1, page 139). The Engineering in Emergencies Manual (see Annex 24.1.3, page 637) also has a good sanitary survey checklist that is useful for site planning, especially where rehabilitation is a key element.
Many assessments are now undertaken using smart phones/tablets and free data collection software such as Kobo or ODK.
Below are some examples of WASH assessment tools: