4.1 First phase response options for water and sanitation

1st phase options Uses and benefits Constraints and considerations

Water supply

Water tankering Effective in urban situations, camps or neighbourhoods


Chlorine dosage can be controlled at tanker level

Unsustainable and expensive, huge logistical challenge to ensure adequate quantity


Need to consider water storage at off-loading points


Access to fuel and tankers can be limited

Well protection and controlled distribution using pump and pipeline Protects and improves water source such as spring or well, reducing contamination


Chlorination can be controlled and water can be treated (to tank, or individual water containers)


Effective for both camp-based situations and dispersed populations by supplying in targeted locations for people to collect

May need continuous supervision and training of caretakers


Needs higher-capacity storage containers


Difficult to meet Sphere standards for distance and users per distribution point

Distribution of water purification product (e.g. Aquatabs, WaterGuard) with water storage containers and hygiene promotion at household level Effective in situations where people are spread over large areas, including home-based


Can reach large numbers of people and large areas, for example in flooding situations

Need to distribute jerry cans or storage containers with water purification product


More effective with sensitisation activities and follow-up


Rehabilitation of existing latrines, for example in schools or public spaces Quick solution and important if displaced people have gathered in public buildings May not be sufficient quantity of latrines available (so potential to combine this with temporary latrines).
Shallow or deep trench latrines Quick solution using simple materials (plywood, tarps, etc.), and can be used while longer-term options developed Short lifespan


Need large amounts of space


People may not be willing to use, and can lack privacy

Open defecation management (defecation field) Useful where there is a large population and no other option is possible (due to lack materials)


Immediate option when large numbers of people accumulate in a short timeframe

Difficult to manage; may need continuous supervision and signage


Is not preferable to people


Risk of cross-contamination

Bucket latrines Suitable for high water table, needing a rapid solution Need location to dump waste, as containers will fill quickly


Continuous attention to dumping

Chemical toilets Urban situations (can be used over constructed/concrete land) High cost


Need a contract that considers the frequent use and degradation of facilities


Challenged with de-sludging