4.5 Monitoring results

Monitoring is an important aspect of any emergency WASH programme. For additional guidelines, see the Monitoring and Evaluation section.

The most appropriate indicators to collect data on should be decided at the outset of the programme, and be linked the project logframe if one exists. The following table provides some examples of WASH indicators. Sphere (Annex 24.1.1) should also be used to select appropriate indicators.

It is important that indicators from Sphere or elsewhere are always adapted to the local context.

For example, Sphere recommends one toilet for a maximum of 20 people as a target, but this may not always be possible in the local context. This is the indicator, but the standard is that the environment be kept free from excreta. It is important to meet the standard, but the indicator is adapted to the local context.

Particular emphasis is required to ensure that IASC Gender and Gender Based Violence (GBV) minimum standards are addressed. A CARE/OCHA study (2011, see Annex 24.1.7) found that in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake, 83% of latrines were not adequately lit and 84% were not gender-separated, creating risks for women and girls.


Hygiene behaviour Sample indicators (adapted from Annex 8.1.8 WASH cluster hygiene promotion guidelines)
Safe drinking water ·    Adequate water handling practices to minimise contamination practised by x% of the population

·    X% of the population uses safe water for drinking (determine percentage according to situation)

Safe excreta disposal ·    X% of children’s and babies’ faeces are safely disposed of

·    Y% of latrines have lighting sufficient for safe night-time use

·    Z% of latrines are arranged in a gender-segregated configuration

·    Y% of latrines have locks on the inside for safe use

·    Toilets are used by the majority of men, women and children

Hygiene practices ·    X% of the population wash their hands with soap or ash at least after contact with faecal matter and before handling food

·    Soap or ash for hand washing is available in all households

·    Hand washing facilities are available and in use at 100% of communal latrines or in the majority of homes

Women’s privacy and dignity around menstrual hygiene ·    Appropriate sanitary materials and underwear for all women and girls are available

·    Women are enabled to deal with menstrual hygiene issues in privacy and with dignity

Community participation and representation ·    All sections of the community, including vulnerable groups, are consulted and represented at all stages of the project

·    The majority of community members are satisfied (defined in terms of access, safety, privacy, systems for cleaning, etc.) with the provision of facilities

·    Users take responsibility for the management and maintenance of water supply and sanitation facilities

·    All sectors of the community, including vulnerable groups, are enabled to practise the target hygiene behaviours


See also Annex 8.1.8 WASH Cluster Hygiene Project: Indicators for Monitoring Hygiene Promotion in an Emergency.