6.1 Impact, outcome and process monitoring
Cash transfer programs should be measured against the same sectoral indicators and humanitarian benchmarks that CARE and implementing partners would normally use, as the objective of CVA will never be to simply deliver cash, but to improve outcomes relating to basic needs, livelihoods, food security, shelter, nutrition, WASH, etc. Therefore, the monitoring plans should focus on program objectives and outputs, rather than the delivery modality.
Some specific indicators may be added when implementing CVA, particularly those dealing with individual, household, community, or market-level outcomes. As for any indicators set by CARE, those used in cash programming should be gender-sensitive, and impact and process should be monitored from a gender-segregated perspective, to ensure the differing needs of women and men are covered adequately.
Outcomes and impact indicators:
- Spending pattern within beneficiary households, through analysis of expenditure prioritization;
- CVA effects on filling sectoral needs gaps (determining percentage of beneficiaries with access to 20L of safe drinking water per day, percentage of repaired/reconstructed houses that fulfil minimal safety and disaster risk reduction criteria, etc.) or effect on cross-cutting objectives when using multipurpose cash (percentage of households with confirmed reduction of negative coping mechanism index, percentage of households able to cover their Minimum Expenditure Basket [MEB]);
- Impacts of CVA on community relations (e.g. ability to share, solidarity, power dynamics);
- Impact of CVA on household relations, possibly determined by the number of complaints received by beneficiaries about CVA use within the household;
- Impact on women, such as the percentage of women who own a mobile phone or who report having a say in how funds are spent;
- Impact on power dynamics (e.g. decision-making on purchases, household investments)
- Transformation in market systems, livelihood systems, or ownership and management of assets due to CVA, as seen by the number of traders, prices, volume, and quality of goods in local markets.
When CfW is being considered, a monitoring scheme that examines the impact on the number of children dropping out of school to enable parents or caregivers to work is also recommended.
Process and output indicators:
- Community satisfaction regarding targeting systems;
- Community satisfaction regarding CfW project selection processes;
- Beneficiary satisfaction regarding the chosen modality compared to in-kind aid;
- Beneficiary satisfaction regarding the payment agent and distribution process;
- Beneficiary perception of their safety throughout the process;
- Whether cash or vouchers are received by the right person, safely, on time and in the right amount.
Tips on ensuring a gender focus in monitoring:
- Disaggregate groups: whenever possible talk men and women separately and be sure to include ranges of ages, abilities, and ethnicities
- Strive for representation in monitoring team: it matters not only who is asking the questions, but who is analysing the data
- Ask about access and change: see if CVA has changed who can access markets, or not, and what those changes may mean to different groups of men and women