3.3 Gender Analysis
Women and men have different and distinct needs and challenges in emergencies. Analyzing these during project design and implementation is essential to implementing a program that can support both women and men equally, and CVA is a tool that can help overcome gender inequality and vulnerability.
All parts of a situational analysis should consider gender, and be used to inform program design, whether implementing in-kind assistance or CVA. These analyses tell us about power relations and gender roles within households and the community, which can be culturally and geographically specific, and will impact how women are targeted as beneficiaries.
To best understand specific gender needs in an emergency, use:
1. An existing CARE Gender in Brief (GiB) from the CO, that is updated immediately after a shock
2. Experiences from previous CVA and asset distributions
3. Gender assessment, best if completed within the month following a shock
4. Gender analyses from UN Women, UNICEF, or from other agencies operating in country.
These should inform:
- Whether women are/are not especially vulnerable to poverty and shocks, and why;
- What makes risks for women worse during a shock;
- Roles, needs, capacities, differences, and inequalities of women, men, girls, and boys, regarding income generation and access to market, cash, and credit;
- Power relations and participation of women and men in income generation, access to and control over cash and resources, and decision making on how to spend money to meet needs within the household;
- The way money is divided, controlled, and used within households, including multiple partner households (polygamy, polyandry);
- Where control lies within the household regarding management and use of cell phones, SIM cards, and ATM cards;
- Differences between male- and female-headed households, in terms of access to and control of cash;
- The cultural norms and practices that shape women’s and men’s access to and control over cash and other family resources.
CARE’s Rapid Gender Analysis has been specifically adapted for CTP use, and can be found here: https://www.dropbox.com/s/cyu3ep346yz4m9g/RGA%20FGD%20Cash%20and%20Markets%20template.doc?dl=0.
The IASC’s “Gender Handbook for Humanitarian Action” has a chapter on CTP and gender equality, which offers steps in integrating gender meaningfully through such an intervention (https://interagencystandingcommittee.org/gender-and-humanitarian-action/content/iasc-2017-gender-handbook-humanitarian-action-english).
Guidelines for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Action (http://www.cashlearning.org/downloads/user-submitted-resources/2019/05/1557937891.CVA_GBV%20guidelines_compendium.FINAL.pdf )