3. HOW to integrate gender into an emergency response?
Rapid Gender Analysis
A Rapid Gender Analysis primarily seeks to understand these three questions:
1. What are gendered-related rights denials in a given context?
2. How will gender relations affect the achievement of sustainable results?
3. How will proposed results affect the relative status of men and women? Will it exacerbate or reduce inequalities?
CARE’s approach to gender in emergencies focuses on mainstreamed, integrated and targeted actions and approaches. The approach focuses on 4 key areas (see graphic). These are outlined in CARE’s Gender in Emergencies Guidance note and are summarized below.
A. Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA): An RGA provides information about the different needs, capacities, and coping strategies of women, girls, boys and men in a crisis situation. It does this, in part, by examining the roles and relationships between women, girls, boys and men. An RGA is built up progressively, and provides an initial but incomplete analysis of gender relations in an emergency.
The five steps of an RGA are:
- Find existing gender information
- Collect new gender information
- Analyse the gender information
- Make practical recommendations
- Share and update the RGA report
The CARE RGA links to more in-depth Gender and Power Analysis using the CARE Good Practice Framework.
B. Minimum commitments for technical sectors: Ensuring gender is mainstreamed and integrated throughout all steps of the humanitarian programme cycle helps to ensure that adequate and efficient services and assistance is provided, with attention to users’ safety, dignity and equal access. Minimum Commitments are people-centered commitments that aim at improving the quality and efficiency of response programmes, and ensuring that key issues such as gender, gender-based violence, child protection, disability and age are taken into consideration by all partners. They also help to reinforce the accountability of sectoral interventions to the affected population. CARE has developed a set of minimum commitments for its core sectors: WASH, Shelter, Food Security and Sexual Reproductive Health and Rights.
Links to the minimum commitments and additional guidance can be found below:
- Gender equality programming and WASH guidance and the Emergency Gender and WASH tip Sheet and WASH minimum commitments
- Gender inclusion in cash-for-work for shelter outcomes
- Gender and Shelter Good Programming Guidelines
Integration of specific indicators can be used to support the measurement and progress of gender in emergencies response and ensure accountability in programming. The following guidance has been developed and is currently in its second pilot phase: Gender equality and women’s voice supplementary indicators.
C. Women Lead in Emergencies: Gender equality in humanitarian programming is most effectively achieved if women and girls actively participate, and are empowered to choose how to participate, in decisions on how to meet their needs.
A focus on women’s equal voice, leadership and participation aims to transform the root causes of poverty and injustice, to save lives and increase gender equality. Particular efforts are made to reach marginalized women and girls, including women with disabilities, indigenous women, elderly women, and women of diverse sexual orientation and gender identity, engaging them as active partners, and building on their needs and capacities.
CARE has piloted five steps for their Women Lead in Emergencies approach, in Tonga, Uganda and Niger. The five steps include:
The aim of Women Lead in Emergencies is to ensure, through the five step process, that women’s voice and participation in decision-making is integrated throughout an entire emergency response programme. It prioritises working with existing groups and putting women at the center of decision making, response and recovery processes.
For more information on Women Lead in Emergencies Pilot in Tonga, see the report here
D. Life free from violence
|CARE defines GBV as:
a harmful act or threat based on a person’s sex or gender identity. It includes physical, sexual and psychological abuse, coercion, denial of liberty and economic deprivation, whether occurring in public or private spheres. GBV is rooted in unjust power relations, structures and social/cultural norms.
In an emergency GBV is exacerbated, and vulnerabilities and risk increase. Preventing and responding to GBV in emergencies (GBViE) is a life-saving activity that requires a prioritised response and is mandatory in CARE programming.
CARE’s Framework and Theory of Change for Addressing GBV in emergencies outlines CARE’s commitments through mainstreamed, integrated and stand-alone programming approaches.
CARE’s work to address GBViE is informed by a Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) with a focus on GBV.
CARE has six programming priorities (which are components of the approach, rather than consecutive steps), that make up its framework to address GBViE:
- Mainstreaming and integrating GBV risk mitigation and prevention measures across all sector and multi-sector programmes
- Work with communities to shift patriarchal social norms and address the root causes, exacerbating factors and impacts of GBV in crisis contexts.
- Create and manage ‘Safe Spaces for Women and Girls’/’Women and Girl-Friendly Spaces’.
- Provide appropriate gender and age-sensitive sexual and reproductive health in emergency (SRH-E) services including, where possible, the clinical management of rape (CMR).
- Engage men and boys to prevent and address GBV.
- Inform learning, adaptation and scale-up of CARE’s work and advocacy to influence changes in humanitarian processes, practices, policies and programming to address GBViE.
To support non-GBV practitioners, the GBV constant companion contains two basic tools for field practitioners to know what to do in case a GBV incident is disclosed to them: 1) Psychological first aid: do’s and don’ts, and 2) GBV responder flow chart.
To practically and ethically monitor and mitigate gender-based violence (GBV) refer to CARE’s Guidance for Gender Based Violence (GBV) Monitoring and Mitigation within non-GBV Focused Sectoral Programming. Sample indicators for WASH, Shelter, Health/SRH can also be drawn upon from the IASC GBV Guidelines.
CARE’s global research report, ‘Women responders: Placing local action at the centre of humanitarian protection programming’ explored the actions women take to mitigate and respond to protection risks faced by themselves and others, and how the humanitarian protection sector is ensuring the participation and leadership of women responders. The report can be found here along with the guidance note.