3.2 Types of activities
- Food distribution provides free food assistance directly to households and is of great importance to ensure food security in the short term. Food distribution can be targeted or cover all the families of a given region (blanket distribution).
- Supplementary feeding to reduce the prevalence of mild and moderate malnutrition. Fortified Blended Foods (the main one being CSB = Corn Soya Blend) provide proteins supplements and compact food such as the BP5 that are targeted at children with mild and moderate malnutrition and pregnant and lactating women as take home rations or on site-feeding. Basic medical care is sometimes provided (e.g. de-worming, immunisation, vitamin A supplementation). Note that BP5 is usually available in the CARE stock in Dubai. See description and use of the product here: http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/manual_guide_proced/wfp260004.pdf
- Therapeutic care to treat and reduce the prevalence of severe acute malnutrition and prevent mortality. Therapeutic foods such as F75, F100 (both therapeutic milks) and Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF – example: Plumpy Nut) are provided to the severely malnourished. Those without medical complications treated in the community while those with medical complications receive specialised medical care at health care units or stabilisation centres (see Chapter Health)
- Infant and young child feeding support to promote exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and promote timely and appropriate complementary feeding from 6 months and continued until 12 months of age and beyond.
- Check this link to have an overview of nutritious foods available: https://www.wfp.org/nutrition/special-nutritional-products and http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/communications/wfp255508.pdf?_ga=1.252003405.576055569.1485350970
- Distribution of seeds, tools and fertiliser can encourage agricultural production, as starter packs to returnees or to diversify crops.
- A seed security assessment must be performed before any seed intervention: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5548e.pdf
- Seed vouchers and fairs are an alternative to direct distribution of seeds. Seed vouchers are provided to potential buyers. A seed fair is organised to bring together potential sellers, and creates a market for the vouchers to be used to buy seed (see FAO link: http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/aq418e/aq418e.pdf ) . This approach stimulates local seed procurement systems while increasing buyer access to a wide range of seeds.
- Livestock interventions can include animal health measures, emergency destocking, restocking of livestock, distribution of livestock fodder and nutritional supplementation; livestock refuges, and provision of alternative water sources. The Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards – LEGS – provide detailed and phased guidelines: http://www.livestock-emergency.net/
- Distribution of fish nets and gear or hunting implements can help restore people’s ability to catch food where these tools have been lost in a disaster.
- Promotion of food processing can be supported by humanitarian agencies to help the community be able to utilise available food, either with direct cash or in-kind support to the millers etc., , or with vouchers to beneficiairies
- Local and agricultural extension services can help improve food production.
- Training and education in relevant skills can strengthen food security.
- Unconditional cash transfers are the default response in many food insecure environments.
- Cash-for-work (CFW) provides food-insecure households with opportunities for paid work.
- Food-for-work (FFW) provides food-insecure households with opportunities for paid work which, at the same time, produce outputs of benefit to themselves and the community.
- Food-for-recovery (FFR) is a less structured form of food for work. Activities can contribute to initial recovery and should not require outside technical supervision.
- Income-generating schemes allow people to diversify their sources of income in small-scale, self-employment business schemes. These include support of people in the management, supervision and implementation of businesses.